机器人编程趣味实践04-逻辑判断(if)

在上一节中,介绍了简单的运算规则。核心代码如下:

服务端:

  RCLCPP_INFO( g_node->get_logger(),
    "分别获取两个整数 %" PRId64 " + %" PRId64, request->a, request->b);
  response->sum = request->a + request->b;

当然,+可以更换为其他运算。

客户端:

  RCLCPP_INFO(
    node->get_logger(), "结果 %" PRId64 " + %" PRId64 " = %" PRId64,
    request->a, request->b, result->sum);

这里的结果是由服务端发送给客户端的,这是一个简单的运算调用案例。

在实际运行中,由于使用中文字符,出现了乱码的情况,后续将以英文字符为主,毕竟国外开源代码几乎都是全英文的嘛。


最初,介绍了基本的消息传递,然后是运算,本节将重点关注逻辑判断,如if。

黄金分割与斐波那契数列

先上程序

服务器端:

#include <inttypes.h>
#include <memory>
#include "example_interfaces/action/fibonacci.hpp"
#include "rclcpp/rclcpp.hpp"
// TODO(jacobperron): Remove this once it is included as part of 'rclcpp.hpp'
#include "rclcpp_action/rclcpp_action.hpp"

class MinimalActionServer : public rclcpp::Node
{
public:
  using Fibonacci = example_interfaces::action::Fibonacci;
  using GoalHandleFibonacci = rclcpp_action::ServerGoalHandle<Fibonacci>;

  explicit MinimalActionServer(const rclcpp::NodeOptions & options = rclcpp::NodeOptions())
  : Node("minimal_action_server", options)
  {
    using namespace std::placeholders;

    this->action_server_ = rclcpp_action::create_server<Fibonacci>(
      this->get_node_base_interface(),
      this->get_node_clock_interface(),
      this->get_node_logging_interface(),
      this->get_node_waitables_interface(),
      "fibonacci",
      std::bind(&MinimalActionServer::handle_goal, this, _1, _2),
      std::bind(&MinimalActionServer::handle_cancel, this, _1),
      std::bind(&MinimalActionServer::handle_accepted, this, _1));
  }

private:
  rclcpp_action::Server<Fibonacci>::SharedPtr action_server_;

  rclcpp_action::GoalResponse handle_goal(
    const rclcpp_action::GoalUUID & uuid,
    std::shared_ptr<const Fibonacci::Goal> goal)
  {
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Received goal request with order %d", goal->order);
    (void)uuid;
    // Let's reject sequences that are over 9000
    if (goal->order > 9000) {
      return rclcpp_action::GoalResponse::REJECT;
    }
    return rclcpp_action::GoalResponse::ACCEPT_AND_EXECUTE;
  }

  rclcpp_action::CancelResponse handle_cancel(
    const std::shared_ptr<GoalHandleFibonacci> goal_handle)
  {
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Received request to cancel goal");
    (void)goal_handle;
    return rclcpp_action::CancelResponse::ACCEPT;
  }

  void execute(const std::shared_ptr<GoalHandleFibonacci> goal_handle)
  {
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Executing goal");
    rclcpp::Rate loop_rate(1);
    const auto goal = goal_handle->get_goal();
    auto feedback = std::make_shared<Fibonacci::Feedback>();
    auto & sequence = feedback->sequence;
    sequence.push_back(0);
    sequence.push_back(1);
    auto result = std::make_shared<Fibonacci::Result>();

    for (int i = 1; (i < goal->order) && rclcpp::ok(); ++i) {
      // Check if there is a cancel request
      if (goal_handle->is_canceling()) {
        result->sequence = sequence;
        goal_handle->canceled(result);
        RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Goal Canceled");
        return;
      }
      // Update sequence
      sequence.push_back(sequence[i] + sequence[i - 1]);
      // Publish feedback
      goal_handle->publish_feedback(feedback);
      RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Publish Feedback");

      loop_rate.sleep();
    }

    // Check if goal is done
    if (rclcpp::ok()) {
      result->sequence = sequence;
      goal_handle->succeed(result);
      RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Goal Succeeded");
    }
  }

  void handle_accepted(const std::shared_ptr<GoalHandleFibonacci> goal_handle)
  {
    using namespace std::placeholders;
    // this needs to return quickly to avoid blocking the executor, so spin up a new thread
    std::thread{std::bind(&MinimalActionServer::execute, this, _1), goal_handle}.detach();
  }
};  // class MinimalActionServer

int main(int argc, char ** argv)
{
  rclcpp::init(argc, argv);

  auto action_server = std::make_shared<MinimalActionServer>();

  rclcpp::spin(action_server);

  rclcpp::shutdown();
  return 0;
}

客户端:

#include <inttypes.h>
#include <memory>
#include <string>
#include <iostream>
#include "example_interfaces/action/fibonacci.hpp"
#include "rclcpp/rclcpp.hpp"
// TODO(jacobperron): Remove this once it is included as part of 'rclcpp.hpp'
#include "rclcpp_action/rclcpp_action.hpp"

class MinimalActionClient : public rclcpp::Node
{
public:
  using Fibonacci = example_interfaces::action::Fibonacci;
  using GoalHandleFibonacci = rclcpp_action::ClientGoalHandle<Fibonacci>;

  explicit MinimalActionClient(const rclcpp::NodeOptions & node_options = rclcpp::NodeOptions())
  : Node("minimal_action_client", node_options), goal_done_(false)
  {
    this->client_ptr_ = rclcpp_action::create_client<Fibonacci>(
      this->get_node_base_interface(),
      this->get_node_graph_interface(),
      this->get_node_logging_interface(),
      this->get_node_waitables_interface(),
      "fibonacci");

    this->timer_ = this->create_wall_timer(
      std::chrono::milliseconds(500),
      std::bind(&MinimalActionClient::send_goal, this));
  }

  bool is_goal_done() const
  {
    return this->goal_done_;
  }

  void send_goal()
  {
    using namespace std::placeholders;

    this->timer_->cancel();

    this->goal_done_ = false;

    if (!this->client_ptr_) {
      RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Action client not initialized");
    }

    if (!this->client_ptr_->wait_for_action_server(std::chrono::seconds(10))) {
      RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Action server not available after waiting");
      this->goal_done_ = true;
      return;
    }

    auto goal_msg = Fibonacci::Goal();
    goal_msg.order = 10;

    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Sending goal");

    auto send_goal_options = rclcpp_action::Client<Fibonacci>::SendGoalOptions();
    send_goal_options.goal_response_callback =
      std::bind(&MinimalActionClient::goal_response_callback, this, _1);
    send_goal_options.feedback_callback =
      std::bind(&MinimalActionClient::feedback_callback, this, _1, _2);
    send_goal_options.result_callback =
      std::bind(&MinimalActionClient::result_callback, this, _1);
    auto goal_handle_future = this->client_ptr_->async_send_goal(goal_msg, send_goal_options);
  }

private:
  rclcpp_action::Client<Fibonacci>::SharedPtr client_ptr_;
  rclcpp::TimerBase::SharedPtr timer_;
  bool goal_done_;

  void goal_response_callback(std::shared_future<GoalHandleFibonacci::SharedPtr> future)
  {
    auto goal_handle = future.get();
    if (!goal_handle) {
      RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Goal was rejected by server");
    } else {
      RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Goal accepted by server, waiting for result");
    }
  }

  void feedback_callback(
    GoalHandleFibonacci::SharedPtr,
    const std::shared_ptr<const Fibonacci::Feedback> feedback)
  {
    RCLCPP_INFO(
      this->get_logger(),
      "Next number in sequence received: %" PRId32,
      feedback->sequence.back());
  }

  void result_callback(const GoalHandleFibonacci::WrappedResult & result)
  {
    this->goal_done_ = true;
    switch (result.code) {
      case rclcpp_action::ResultCode::SUCCEEDED:
        break;
      case rclcpp_action::ResultCode::ABORTED:
        RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Goal was aborted");
        return;
      case rclcpp_action::ResultCode::CANCELED:
        RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Goal was canceled");
        return;
      default:
        RCLCPP_ERROR(this->get_logger(), "Unknown result code");
        return;
    }

    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Result received");
    for (auto number : result.result->sequence) {
      RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "%" PRId32, number);
    }
  }
};  // class MinimalActionClient

int main(int argc, char ** argv)
{
  rclcpp::init(argc, argv);
  auto action_client = std::make_shared<MinimalActionClient>();

  while (!action_client->is_goal_done()) {
    rclcpp::spin_some(action_client);
  }

  rclcpp::shutdown();
  return 0;
}

那么这时候,就需要引入逻辑判断了,if

    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Received goal request with order %d", goal->order);
    (void)uuid;
    // Let's reject sequences that are over 9000
    if (goal->order > 9000) {
      return rclcpp_action::GoalResponse::REJECT;
    }
    return rclcpp_action::GoalResponse::ACCEPT_AND_EXECUTE;

当需要计算量大于9000时,需要拒绝,这个数值可以修改。同样也可以发现这个程序运行时间比上一个案例中简单加减要长,并且过程也复杂。

那么中途如果不需要,就可以取消等。

  rclcpp_action::CancelResponse handle_cancel( const std::shared_ptr<GoalHandleFibonacci> goal_handle )
  {
    RCLCPP_INFO(this->get_logger(), "Received request to cancel goal");
    (void)goal_handle;
    return rclcpp_action::CancelResponse::ACCEPT;
  }

先看看效果^_^  分别计算6,66……

计算6阶,还是一切正常的,但是66阶,明显就不对劲啦,这时候溢出,需要终止程序,无需继续下去:

上图中的有明显问题,-1323752223

虽然运行到最后,也会出现如下:

当然,可以查看更多详细信息,使用如下命令:

  1. ros2 action list
  2. ros2 action info /fibonacci
  3. ros2 action send_goal /fibonacci example_interfaces/action/Fibonacci order:\ 20\

示例程序中有大量的判断,下一节将融合图形化界面进行扩展。


 

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